AWANS INFORMACJE FORUM Dla nauczyciela Dla ucznia LOGOWANIE


Katalog

Anna Hołub, 2014-08-26
Chełm

Język angielski, Wypracowania

List nieformalny i formalny - przydatne zwroty

- n +

List prywatny (nieformalny)
Wspomniane pięć obligatoryjnych elementów to:
*Zwrot grzecznościowy typowy dla listu prywatnego
-Dear (imię)
*Wstęp
Bez względu na polecenie, jakie mamy realizować, możemy na początku nawiązać do ostatnio otrzymanego listu, przeprosić za to, że sami nie pisaliśmy od jakiegoś czasu, zapytać się, co słychać:
-Thank you for your recent letter.
-It was good to hear from you recently.
-At the beginning of my letter I want to greet you warmly.
-I'm sorry I haven't written for such a long time.
-I'm fine, and how are you?
-I hope you and your family are doing fine.
*Realizacja "kropek" w poleceniu
Informowanie:
-Listen, did I tell you about ...
-This is just to let you know that ...
Przeprosiny
-I'm writing to apologise for missing your birthday party but I'm afraid I was with flu.
-I'm really sorry that I forgot to send you a birthday card but I was busy with my new job.
-If you let me know(daj mi znać) where you bought it/how much it cost I'll gladly(chętnie) pay for it/replace it.
-Please let me know how much the bill is and I'll gladly pay it.
Zaprosiny
-I'm having a party on Friday 19th and I hope you'll be able to come.
-Would you like to come to see 'WTC' with me at the weekend.
-Could you let me know if you can come?
-Thank you very much for your invitation. I'd love to come.
-Thank you for asking/inviting me to ... but I'm afraid I won't be able to ...
Prośby
-I'm writing to ask for you if you could do me a favour(przysługa).
-I'd be very grateful if you could ...
-I'm writing to thank you for your wonderful present.
-Congratulations on passing your excellent exam results!
Sugestie, rekomendacje
-Maybe you could ...?
-Do visit somewhere
-Don't forget to do sth (nie zapomnij )
-People say that ...
*Zakończenie
-I hope that you write to me.
-I'm waiting for your e-mail.
-This is my e-mail XYZ.
-Greetings for you and your family.
-Once again, thank you for all your help.
Zwrot grzecznościowy typowy dla listu prywatnego
-Yours, (Lot sof love)
XYZ

List formalny
*Początek
-Dear Mr (nazwisko), -Dear Sir, -Dear Madam, -Dear Sir or Madam, -Dear Mr and Mrs Kowalski.
*Wstęp
-I am writting to enquire about - Piszę z zapytaniem o....
-My name is XYZ and I am a student at the XYZ high school in XYZ.
*Realizacja "kropek" w poleceniu
Uzyskiwanie informacji
-I would be grateful if...
-Could you...?
-Could you tell me something about...?
-I'm interesting your advertisement.
-I would be interested in having more details about...
Nawiązywanie do otrzymanego listu
-Regarding... (odnośnie)
-Concerning... (dotyczący)
-As far as (the theatre) is/are concerned,there is/are - Jeśli chodzi (teatr) to tam jest/są
-With regard to... (odnośnie do...)
Skarga, reklamacja
-I am writing to complain about...
-I want to express my strong dissatisfaction with ... - Chcę wyrazić swoje głębokie niezado. z ...
-I would be grateful if you could consider a full refund of 100 pounds. Byłbym wdzięczny, gdybyście Państwo mogli rozważyć całkowity zwrot pieniędzy w wysokości...
-I hope you will replace the CD. Niemniej mam nadzieję, że wymienicie Państwo CD.
-I demand a full refund. - Żądam całkowitego zwrotu.
Zaproszenie
-I would be delighted to attend ... - Byłoby mi niezmiernie miło uczestniczyć w ...
-I am afraid I am unable to attend .. - Obawiam się, że nie będę mógł uczesnitczyć....
Przeprosiny
-I would like to apologie for ... - Chciałbym przeprosić za
*Zakończenie
-I look forward to receiving your reply.
-I look forward to hearing from you soon.- Czekam z niecierpliwością na Waszą szybką odp.
-Please contact me if you have any further questions.
Zwrot grzecznościowy typowy dla listu formalnego
Yours sincerely - (Gdy Dear Mr Kowalski)
Przedstawianie kolejnych argumentów:
1. To begin with – na początek – To begin with, you have to remember that…
2. First of all/ firstly/ secondly – przede wszystkim/ po pierwsze/ po drugie – Firstly, it’s not true that…
3. As for – co do – As for functions, there are all of them.
4. As regards – co się tyczy – As regards the introduced options, they are very useful.
5. Then – poza tym, następnie – I agree and then there is another aspect.
6. Besides – zresztą, oprócz tego – It’s too long and besides I don’t like the author’s style.
7. What is more – co więcej – His attitude is wrong and what’s more, he seems to be a layman.
8. Further – co więcej – Further, the author has to reconsider his claims.
9. Furthermore – ponadto – Furthermore, I neglect such a view.
10. Moreover – ponadto – The idea is not reasonable and moreover it’s unreal.
Uzasadnianie:
11. Thus – tak więc – Thus, the whole project cannot be implemented.
12. Thereby – tym samym – He broke all the rules and thereby, he was expelled.
13. Therefore – dlatego (też) – Profits, therefore, were down last time.
14. Because – ponieważ – I argue with you because you are completely wrong.
15. Since – ponieważ – I decided to write it since I was asked to do so.
16. As – gdyż –As you always come too late, I decided not to wait for you.
17. Accordingly – z tego powodu, w związku z tym – He won the election and accordingly he became a chairman.
18. In consequence – w konsekwencji – He did it and in consequence he was on time.
19. Hence – stąd, w związku z tym, dlatego też – He had credentials and hence they employed him.
Wyrażanie opinii:
20. I would say that – powiedziałbym, że – I would say that such a view is unacceptable.
21. It seems to me that – wydaje mi się, że – It seems to me that his arguments are difficult to prove.
22. In my opinion – moim zdaniem – In my opinion, it is not worth its price.
23. I am of the opinion that – jestem zdania, że – I am of the opinion that it is impossible.
24. I am of the view that – uważam, że – I am of the view that it is very probable.
25. As for – co do, jeśli chodzi o – As for me, I would have done it.
26. To my mind – według mnie – To my mind, it is nonsense.
27. As far as I know – Z tego, co wiem – As far as I know it works in a different way.
28. As far as I am concerned – jeśli o mnie chodzi – As far as I am concerned they can do what they want.
29. According to (sb) – według (kogoś innego niż ja) – According to the author…
30. I reckon (that) – uważam, że – I reckon these allegations are unjustified.
31. I opine (that) – uważam, że – I opine that such a statement is ridiculous.
32. I hold the view that – reprezentuję pogląd/zdanie, że –I hold the view that it cannot be correct.
33. From sb’s standpoint – z czyjegoś punktu widzenia – Try to think of it from my standpoint.
34. I think (that) – uważam, że – I think the authors exaggerate.
35. I have every reason to believe that – mam wszelkie powody, by sądzić, że –I have every reason to believe that it could not happen for real.
36. Judging from/by – sądząc po – Judging from the facts it is possible.
37. I suppose (that) – sądzę, że – I suppose he did not consider the elementary rules.
38. I guess (that) – zgaduję, że – I guess he wrote it himself.
39. I claim (that) – twierdzę/utrzymuję, że – He claims he followed the instructions.
40. I assert that – twierdzę/zapewniam, że – I assert that the thesis is to be substantiated.
41. I maintain (that) – upieram się/obstaję przy tym, że – He maintained his innocence.
42. I consider sb (to be) – uważam kogoś za – I consider the author (to be) a great novelist.
43. I believe (that) – sądzić, uważać, przypuszczać – I believe (that) this conclusion is legitimate.
44. I am convinced that - jestem przekonany, że – I am convinced that it may happen.
Zgadzanie się:
45. I agree – zgadzam się – I agree with you.
46. I accept – akceptuję – I accept these arguments.
47. Be correct – zgadzać się, być prawidłowym – Your thinking is correct.
48. Tally with – zgadzać się z – It tallies with my calculations.
49. Be positive – być przekonanym – He is positive that they did it.
50. Confirm – potwierdzać – I confirm his arguments.
51. Approve of – aprobować – I approve of his conclusions.
52. Support – popierać – I support the solution he suggested.
53. I am in sympathy with sb – popieram kogoś – I am in sympathy with the author.
54. I sympathise with – popieram – I sympathise with his opinion.
Niezgadzanie się:
55. I disagree – nie zgadzam się – I disagree with you.
56. I protest against – protestuję przeciwko – I protest against such behaviour.
57. Reject – odrzucać, nie akceptować – I reject this ideology.
58. I negate – neguję – I negate such thinking.
59. Disapprove of – nie pochwalać, potępiać – I disapprove of such thinking.
60. Oppose – sprzeciwiać się – I had to openly oppose him because he was completely wrong.
61. Object – sprzeciwiać się – I object to be called in such a way.
62. I differ with sb – nie zgadzam się z kimś – I differ with him on this issue.
Precyzowanie danej myśli:
63. What I mean is that – chcę powiedzieć, że – What I mean is that it is not going to be easy.
64. I mean (to say) – to znaczy – His approach is inappropriate, I mean (to say) it lacks theoretical basis.
65. What I am getting at is (that) – chodzi mi o to, że – What I am getting at is (that) you are not being realistic.
66. The point is (that) – chodzi o to, że – The point is (that) I just cannot agree.
67. In other words – inaczej mówiąc- In other word, the software is full of bugs.
68. That is to say – to znaczy, czyli – Sociolinguistics, that is to say the study of a language in a society is often underestimated.
69. Make oneself clear – wyrażać się jasno – I will make myself clear.
70. I will put it this way – ujmę to w ten sposób – I will put it this way, If you want to succeed you have to concentrate on your goals.
Wyrażanie różnic:
71. Actually – faktycznie, w rzeczywistości – It is a well known fact, actually.
72. In fact – faktycznie, de facto – In fact, I am completely against your suggestion.
73. In a way – w pewnym sensie – I know your thinking is not correct, but in a way, I can understand such reasoning.
74. To a certain extent – do pewnego stopnia – I agree with the author to a certain extent, but…
75. Anyway – w każdym razie, tak czy inaczej – anyway, I think that…
76. As a rule – z reguły – As a rule, he is never wrong.
77. On the one hand – z jednej strony – On the one hand, it is what I need.
78. On the other hand – z drugiej strony – On the other hand, it is too complicated.
79. Still – jednak – The novel is hard to read; still, it is interesting.
80. Yet – jednak, mimo to – She is not a mathematician and yet her skills are amusing.
81. However – jednak(że) – I usually drink coffee. Today, however, I am having a cup of tea.
82. On the contrary – przeciwnie – He is not tall, on the contrary, he is really short.
83. In spite of – (po)mimo – In spite of evidence, they did not believe him.
84. Nevertheless – pomimo to, niemniej jednak – Nevertheless, it is still valued by scholars.
85. Nonetheless - pomimo to, niemniej jednak – Nonetheless, it is important to him.
86. Notwithstanding – jednakże, mimo wszystko, mimo to – He is a decent man, notwithstanding I do not like him.
87. In contrast to/with – w odróznieniu od – In contrast to his father he is very famous.
88. But – (a) mimo to, (a) jednak – The story is strange but true.
89. But then (again) – ale z drugiej strony, ale przecież – But then such methods are practical.
Podsumowywanie:
90. Finally – wreszcie, w końcu – Finally, I would like to concentrate on the main issue.
91. In short – krótko mówiąć – In short, it was outrageous.
92. All things considered – w sumie – All things considered, he is a happy man.
93. To sum up – podsumowując – To sum up, there are advantages and disadvantages.
94. To recap – podsumowując – To recap, it can be accepted.
95. To conclude – na zakończenie – To conclude, the translator domesticated the story.
96. In conclusion – kończąc – I would like to say in conclusion, that I admire them.
97. As a conclusion – kończąc – As a conclusion we may quote the poet…
98. Generally speaking – ogólnie rzecz biorąc – Generally speaking, it is not a problem.
99. On the whole – ogólnie rzecz biorąc – On the whole, it is a quite good idea.
100. Lastly – wreszcie, w końcu – …and lastly it is the most popular programme.
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